Oct 242011

SCORM : Sharable Content Object Reference Model

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) is a collection of standards and specifications for web-based e-learning. It defines communications between client side content and a host system called the run-time environment, which is commonly supported by a learning management system. SCORM also defines how content may be packaged into a transferable ZIP file called “Package Interchange Format”.[1]

SCORM is a specification of the Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Initiative, which comes out of the Office of the United States Secretary of Defense.

SCORM 2004 introduced a complex idea called sequencing, which is a set of rules that specifies the order in which a learner may experience content objects. In simple terms, they constrain a learner to a fixed set of paths through the training material, permit the learner to “bookmark” their progress when taking breaks, and assure the acceptability of test scores achieved by the learner. The standard uses XML, and it is based on the results of work done by AICC, IMS Global, IEEE, and Ariadne.


  • 1 Compliance
  • 2 SCORM versions
    • 2.1 SCORM 1.1
    • 2.2 SCORM 1.2
    • 2.3 SCORM 2004
      • 2.3.1 SCORM 2004 editions
      • 2.3.2 SCORM 2004 specification books
  • 3 SCORM timeline
  • 4 See also
  • 5 References
  • 6 External links
    • 6.1 Resources
    • 6.2 ADL Co-Lab Network


A testing initiative was started in 1996. In December 2003, the US Department of Defense mandated that all its e-learning purchases must comply with SCORM standards. By May 2010, ADL had validated 301 SCORM-certified products [2] while 329 products were compliant.[3]

SCORM versions


SCORM 1.1 is the first production version. It used a Course Structure Format XML file based on the AICC specifications to describe content structure, but lacked a robust packaging manifest and support for metadata. Quickly abandoned in favor of SCORM 1.2.


This was the first version that was widely used. It is still widely used and is supported by most Learning Management Systems today.

SCORM 2004

This is the current version. It is based on new standards for API and content object-to-runtime environment communication, with many ambiguities of previous versions resolved. Includes ability to specify adaptive sequencing of activities that use the content objects. Includes ability to share and use information about success status for multiple learning objectives or competencies across content objects and across courses for the same learner within the same learning management system. A more robust test suite helps ensure good interoperability.

SCORM 2004 editions

  • 3rd Edition (October 2006) — clarification of various conformance requirements and of the interaction between content objects and the runtime environment for sequencing; some new conformance requirements to improve interoperability.
  • 4th Edition Released (March 31, 2009) — more stringent interoperability requirements, more flexible data persistence.[4]

 SCORM 2004 specification books

  • Overview — introduces SCORM and describes how the other books relate
  • Content Aggregation Model — describes packaging of content and learning object
  • Run-Time Environment — describes runtime API and data model used for communication between content objects and learning management systems
  • Sequencing and Navigation — describes how sequencing between learning activities is defined and interpreted
  • Compliance Requirements — detailed list of the conformance requirements that are verified by the ADL SCORM conformance test suite.

SCORM timeline

  • January 1999 — Executive Order 13111 signed tasking the DoD to develop common specifications and standards for e-learning across both federal and private sectors
  • January 2000 — SCORM Version 1.0
  • January 2001 — SCORM Version 1.1
  • October 2001 — SCORM Version 1.2
  • January 2004 — SCORM 2004 (1st Edition)
  • July 2004 — SCORM 2004 (2nd Edition)
  • June 2006 — Department of Defense Instruction (DoDI) 1322.26 Requiring DoD Use of SCORM
  • October 2006 — SCORM 2004 (3rd Edition)
  • March 2009 — SCORM 2004 (4th Edition)

See also

  • ADL Registry
  • Authoring tool
  • Computer aided instruction
  • Educational technology
  • SLOOP Project


  1. ^ “Technical”. SCORM. http://www.scorm.com/scorm-explained/technical-scorm/. Retrieved 2011-08-17.
  2. ^ [1][dead link]
  3. ^ [2][dead link]
  4. ^ SCORM 2004 4th Edition Version 1.1 Overview

External links


  • ADL Guidelines for Creating Reusable Content with SCORM 2004
  • SCORM Resource Portal: Product and Service Directory, News, Forums, Jobs, and whitepapers
  • Concise articles like “SCORM For Dummies” and “SCORM For Developers”, graphical reference poster and tools to help with conformance
  • SCORM Developer Network (Redbird DevNet): SCORM-related News, Forums, Jobs, Documentation, and more…
  • SCORM BRASIL (Portuguese): Forums, Cursos, Documentação, e mais…
  • VSSCORM – a project to create a simple SCORM 1.2 interface.
  • [3] – library of hundreds of free SCORM objects. An initiative supported from the Australian commonwealth.

ADL Co-Lab Network

  • Advanced Distributed Learning Co-Laboratory Hub (Alexandria, Virginia): The ADL Co-Lab Hub coordinates the operations of the ADL Co-Labs
  • Joint Advanced Distributed Learning Co-Laboratory (Orlando, Florida): Supports the integration of training and technology for the DoD
  • Corporate Advanced Distributed Learning Co-Laboratory (Memphis, Tennessee): Facilitation of SCORM Implementation In Industry
  • Academic Advanced Distributed Learning Co-Laboratory (Madison, Wisconsin): Supports the evaluation and testing of ADL tools to enhance Academia
  • Advanced Distributed Learning Job Performance Lab (Alexandria, Virginia): Their mission is to act as a catalyst for the advancement of research, development and implementation of dynamic capability-based job performance technology solutions across the Department of Defense
  • United Kingdom Advanced Distributed Learning Partnership Laboratory (Telford, England): This UK Partnership Lab promotes the development and acceptance of global e-learning standards
  • Canada Advanced Distributed Learning Partnership Laboratory (Ottawa, Canada): Support ADL implementation with the Canadian DND
  • Australia ADL Partnership Laboratory (Brisbane, Australia)]
  • Latin American and Caribbean Regions ADL Partnership Laboratory (Ejidos de Huipulco, Mexico)
  • Korea ADL Partnership Laboratory (Seoul, Korea)
  • Norway ADL Partnership Laboratory (Oslo, Norway)
  • Romania ADL Partnership Laboratory (Bucharest, Romania)



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