ADDIE Model: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The ADDIE model is the generic process traditionally used by instructional designers and training developers. The five phases—Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation—represent a dynamic, flexible guideline for building effective training and performance support tools.
It is an Instructional Systems Design (ISD) model. Most of the current instructional design models are spin-offs or variations of the ADDIE model; other models include the Dick & Carey and Kemp ISD models. One commonly accepted improvement to this model is the use of rapid prototyping. This is the idea of receiving continual or formative feedback while instructional materials are being created. This model attempts to save time and money by catching problems while they are still easy to fix.
Instructional theories also play an important role in the design of instructional materials. Theories such as behaviorism, constructivism, social learning and cognitivism help shape and define the outcome of instructional materials.
In the analysis phase, the instructional problem is clarified, the instructional goals and objectives are established and the learning environment and learner’s existing knowledge and skills are identified. Below are some of the questions that are addressed during the analysis phase:
- Who are the learners and what are their characteristics?
- What is the new behavioral outcome?
- What types of learning constraints exist?
- What are the delivery options?
- What are the online pedagogical considerations?
- What are the Adult Learning Theory considerations?
- What is the timeline for project completion?
The design phase deals with learning objectives, assessment instruments, exercises, content, subject matter analysis, lesson planning and media selection. The design phase should be systematic and specific. Systematic means a logical, orderly method of identifying, developing and evaluating a set of planned strategies targeted for attaining the project’s goals. Specific means each element of the instructional design plan needs to be executed with attention to details.
These are steps involved in design phase:
- Document the project’s instructional, visual and technical design strategy
- Apply instructional strategies according to the intended behavioral outcomes by domain (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor).
- Design the user interface and/or user experience
- Create prototype
- Apply visual design (graphic design)
The development phase is where instructional designers and developers create and assemble the content assets that were blueprinted in the design phase. In this phase, storyboards and graphics are designed. If elearning is involved, programmers develop and/or integrate technologies. Testers perform debugging procedures. The project is reviewed and revised according to the feedback received.
During the implementation phase, a procedure for training the facilitators and the learners is developed. The facilitators’ training should cover the course curriculum, learning outcomes, method of delivery, and testing procedures. Preparation of the learners includes training them on new tools (software or hardware) and student registration.
This is also the phase where the project manager ensures that the books, hands-on equipment, tools, CD-ROMs and software are in place, and that the learning application or website is functional.
The evaluation phase consists of two parts: formative and summative. Formative evaluation is present in each stage of the ADDIE process. Summative evaluation consists of tests designed for domain specific criterion-related referenced items and providing opportunities for feedback from the users which were identified
- Educational technology
- Molenda, Michael (May/June 2003). “In Search of the Elusive ADDIE Model”. Performance improvement 42 (5): 34–37. Amended version available at the author’s web site at Indiana University (Bloomington).
- Strickland, A.W (2006). “ADDIE”. Idaho State University College of Education, Science, Math & Technology Education. http://ed.isu.edu/addie/index.html. Retrieved 2006-06-29.
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